Fitness Dictionary

Welcome to this fitness dictionary with explanations of expressions from the gym or group exercise and fitness books, fitness blogs and articles.
Fitness definition
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Fitness is a noun with two meanings:
– A condition, physically fit and healthy or suitable  – in biology ‘fit for survival’.
– An ability; One is fit for a particular role or task.

Fitness is used internationally about health and physical performance in a broad sense. The fitness concept also refers to physical exercise in gyms and fitness centres, or at home, outside, on your own or with a trainer. Physical fitness includes cardiovascular fitness, coordination, strength and mobility.

Mental fitness includes positive thinking; problemsolving, concentration and relaxation.

Fitness training definition

Fitness training with quality is evidence-based, safe, promotes and performs and gives rise to rewards. Maximum training effect with minimum time and minimum risk of overload and maximum motivation resulting in perseverance (Aagaard, 2009):

Optimal effect, minimal time effort, minimal risk, maximum motivation.

Fitness Dictionary

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1O1
One-on-one. Personal training.

1RM
One repetition maximum. The maximal weight one can lift once, 100%.

5: 2
Special partial fasting that promote weight loss while retaining muscle mass. You usually eat (healthy) five days of the week two days, separated by at least one day of normal eating, you eat a low-calorie dinner at approx. 500-600 kcal. Authors: Michael Mosley and Mimi Spencer.

5K
Five kilometer (run).

10K
Ten kilometer (run).

A


Ab curl
Abdominal flexion focusing on the rectus abdomines muscle with minimal activation of the hip flexor. A traditional ab curl with approx. 30 degrees flexion of the spine, upper body curl up from the ground.

Abs
Abbreviation for abdominals, abdominal muscles.

Absolute Strength
Strength based on actual amount of kilos lifted (versus relative strength)

Abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body.

Acceleration
Meter per second squared, m/s². The rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.

Accomodation
A biological phenomenon, which means that the response, to the same stimulus, decreases over time.
In training, it means that the training must be varied and progressively adjusted to ensure continued progress.

ACE
American Council on Exercise. USA. International organization that promotes fitness and health know-how and education. Publishing books and holding fitness certifications.

ACSM
American College of Sportsmedicine. USA. International organization that promotes health and exercise and publish recommendations for training and nutrition.
Publishing books and holding fitness certifications. www.acsm.org .

ACL
Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Important ligament for stability of the knee.

Adaptation
Adaptation. Of to adapt, to adapt to …
The body must have time to adapt; the training should ‘have time to work’.

Adduction
Movement towards the midline of the body.
The movement of the arm or leg back towards the body.

ADL
Activities of Daily Living. Ordinary Daily Living / Living.
Everyday activities, physical activity.

Advanced
Exercise (Level), Exercise, Advanced Exercise.

AEE (Activity Energy Expenditure)
The part of energy turnover that comes from physical activity.

Aerobic
With (sufficient) oxygen. There is enough oxygen for the current work level.

Aerobics
Of aerobic exercise or aerobics. Earlier also called dance-exercise. Now often called cardio or various marketing names. Popular and easily accessible form of group training focusing on fitness training, while simultaneously improving coordination.
Light or difficult sequences with variations; jogging, running, jumping, twisting and upper body movements. With music and continuous instruction.

Afferent
Afferent, Sensory, Nerve Impulses, delivering central nervous system input, CNS.

Agility
Agility and speed. Exercise that trains the reaction ability and ability to accelerate, decelerate and change direction. An important element in functional training and sports training. Drills with general or specific exercises related to sports requirements.

Agonist
The working, responsible, primary muscle in a movement. The agonist is responsible for both stages of exercise, the concentric phase (muscle shortens and moves the joint) and the eccentric phase (the muscle is extended and the joint moves back to neutral).

Airjack
Explosive jumping jack in the air. Jump up: arms and legs out.
Land softly with legs together.

Aging
The process that appeals to us: Age-related (endogenous) influences : Internal slow-moving changes, which include accumulation of DNA damage and reduced repair capacity. Age-related (exogenous) influences :  External effects of the cells  (sun, diet, smoking,  cosmetics, inactivity). Biological aging is a combination  of internal changes (inheritance / genes) and  external influences. Aging can not be stopped, but is significantly reduced by physical activity and healthy lifestyle.

Amino acid
Organic substance containing nitrogen. Protein building blocks.

Amplitude
Range of motion, the size of the motion large or small, eg full range of motion, ROM.

AMRAP
Abbreviation for as many rounds as possible or as many reps as possible, as many repetitions or (circuit) rounds as possible.
A CrossFit expression that refers to intensive workouts performed with time frame;
A number of exercises in a certain time or a number of rounds in a certain time.

Anabolic
Building.

Anaerobic
Without (sufficient) oxygen.

Anatomy
The science of organisms, e.g. human structure and form. Knowledge of anatomy is fundamental as a basis for the design of healthy and effective training.

Animal movements 
Animal inspired movements for warm-ups or special strength training. Eg gorilla, bear, crocodile, scorpion, reptile etc. The Animal Flow concept is one example.

Anorexia (anorexia nervosa)
Eating disorder, compulsive [not] eating disorder, disease.

Antagonist
Muscle with the opposite movement of the agonist, the primary muscle in a motion analysis.

Anterior
Front of the body, to the front, or in front of, anatomical expression.

Anti-aging
Anti-aging (or rather well-aging). Used about various strategies to slow the aging process, cosmetic as well as training and other.

Antioxidant
A chemical substance antioxidant (antioxidant), which inhibit oxidation (removes potentially damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism).

Anthropometry
The science of human measures: Height, kilo, perimeter and fat percentage.

App
An app, is an application software that can be downloaded from the net to an iphone, smartphone, tablet (tablet pcs, ipad, kindle, etc.), pc or similar.
There are millions of apps, programs, about training, fitness, running, diet and exercise. There are both good and bad. The best apps are excellent as a motivational tool, training diary and “personal trainer”.

AROM
Active Range of Motion, Active Movement.

Artery
Blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the muscles.

AT
Anaerobic threshold (anaerobic threshold).
Threshold where the level of lactic acid in the blood begins to rise (markedly).
The anaerobic processes dominate.

ATG
Ass to (the) grass. Squat with buttocks deep down to the calves. CrossFit expression.

ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate, Chemical Substance, Muscle Fuel.

Atrophy
From Greek a- ‘u-‘ and trophe ‘nutrition’, ‘food’.
Decreasing size of a body or cell. Seen in malnutrition, lack of physical activity, eg less movement with age, injury or illness.
Extreme atrophy is called kakeksi.

Attitude
Especially in fitness dance; with attitude, style, attitude.
Also position in ballet.

B


Ballistic
Thrown or explosive movement. Typically not controlled, but uncontrolled.

BAPS (board)
Acronym for Biomechanical Ankle Platform System. A tilting and balancing board where you can mount hemispheres of different sizes under the board.

Barbell
Bar for plate loading – or fixed plates. A classic Olympic barbell,
is 220 cm, 50 mm Ø, and weight of 20 kg.
There are also lighter barbells of 10 and 15 kg.

Bare foot running
Barefoot Running. A bar-running program. Generally, running in bare feet is natural but hard on hard surfaces and requires exercise. Bare foot running has become popular during recent years.

Basic
Basis, Basic. Basic Exercise.

BB (Barbell)
Abbreviation for barbell.

BCAA 
Branched-Chain Amino Acid. Amino acids with branched side chains (BCAA) .
supplements; more protein for muscle building (without consuming too much carbohydrates).

Beat 
Music basic rhythm, beat. To be on the beat: To follow the rhythm of music.

Bent-over
Forward bend (lean), such as in bent-over rowing movement.

BFP (BF%)
Body fat percentage. Percentage of body fat (of body mass).

BFRE
Blood Flow Resisted Exercise. See occlusion training.

Biomechanics
The body’s movements and strain on the bones, joints and nervous system.

Bikram yoga
A special form of yoga. A 90 minute long program with 26 positions, asanas, performed in a 40 degree warm room.
Advantages according to followers: Increased blood circulation. Disadvantages: Risk of dehydration and discomfort.

Bilateral
Both limbs, arms and / or legs work simultaneously – versus unilateral.

Blog
Of Weblog, Website Logbook. Multiple blogs. A website that is regularly updated with posts with shorter or longer texts, about a single or many different topics. For example, a blog may be in a diary, article form or news form. A blogger is the one who writes or edits a blog.
There are a lot of blogs about fitness, exercise, health and diet written by both laymen and professionals. Content is of mixed quality, from fake news, unhealthy, misleading information to fun, top-motivating and / or serious scientific information.
It is recommended to check the source.

Block
Part. For example, choreography part of 4 × 8 beats, or a strength training program part.

Blood Flow Restricted Exercise, BFRE (or BFR Training)
See Occlusion Training .

BMI
Body Mass Index. BMI = weight (kg): height² (m).

BMR 
Basal Metabolic Rate . Basal metabolism, metabolism.
The body’s energy needs at rest.

Bodybuilding
Muscle training to shape the body and build larger muscles.
Focus is the harmony between upper body (V-shape) and lower body and front and back with clearly marked muscles.

Body Mass Index (BMI)
Weight in relation to height; numbers relate to body weight and health status.
BMI = weight (kg): height² (m).
Although there is uncertainty, for example for very muscular athletes, BMI calculation is widely used in health care for guidance.

Bodymind
Or mindbody. Exercise focused on both body and mind, with an inward focus.
For example yoga, tai chi and qi gong and many martial arts disciplines.

Body toning
Strength training in group exercise. With body weight and equipment like dumbbells, rubberband etc. etc. Bodysculpt is another name – or group strength training.

Bootcamp (boot camp)
Originally soldiers ‘stroppeture’ in military boots. Now a very widespread name for various types of hard training programs, inside and out, or weight loss and fitness courses that run over a limited, intensive period of time.

Borg scale
A scale for rating perceived exertion. Created by Gunnar Borg.
The Borg scale is based on a close correlation between the degree of effort and the heart rate during work (training). The scale goes from 6-20 (adding 0 corresponds to the pulse range from resting to maximal heart rate 60-200).
Borg also developed a slightly different CR10 scale from 0-10.

BOSU
Both Sides Up (and Both Sides Utilized). Marketing name for a large dome-shaped blue air disc used for fitness training, eg fitness, strength, stability and balance.
Used in individual training and in group exercise: BOSU training.

Bounce
Easy jogging. Moderate impact activity.

Bouldering
Rock climbing as a workout. Performed on walls / mountains below 5 meters high.
Free climbing, mostly without a line, but a mat underneath. In clubs, some gyms and fitness centres.

BP
Bench press. Bench press. Barbell chest (and shoulder and triceps) exercise.

BPM
Beats per minute. Number of beats per minute (music rhythm).

Break
Pause. Stop. For example, in education, training or music.

Breakdown
Teaching method in choreography formidling. Teaching parts one at a time.

Breve
Short. Anatomy expression.

Bridge
Transition: In choreography for example a connection between movements. In music a transition between different parts.

Bronchial
Concerning the lungs.

Broscience
From bro, short for brother, meaning friend or group member, and science, science. A condescending expression, referring to myths and misunderstandings conveyed as being facts by laymen with limited knowledge. The term is widespread in fitness and other training contexts, where misunderstandings are abundant.

BS
Back squat. Squat with barbell on the upper back.

BP
Blood Pressure. Blood pressure on blood vessels, arterial walls. Blood pressure depends on how powerfully the heart pumps the blood and how much resistance the blood meets in the vascular system, the walls of the arteries.
Blood pressure is measured in mm of mercury and the standard is 120/08 mm Hg (up to 140/90 mmHg). Several factors determine whether a given blood pressure is a risk factor.
The two numbers indicate systolic blood pressure, the  heart’s contraction  phase when the heart pumps the blood and diastolic blood pressure, the heart’s rest phase when the heart is filled with blood.
High blood pressure wears the heart and arteries and is associated with a number of diseases, such as heart conditions and atherosclerosis.

BTS
Body Training Systems. The world’s largest provider of concept programs, such as BodyPump, BodyCombat, BodyStep, BodyAttack, BodyBalance, BodyJam, Sh’Bam, BodyVive, CXWORX, RPM (cycling) and Les Mills Grit Strength, Grit Plyo and Grit Cardio Born to move.
Founded by Les Mills , New Zealand.

Build
Build. Bodybuilding, whether body or method. Build choreography, eg part-whole.

Bulimia (bulimia nervosa)
Eating disorder, vomiting after eating, disease.
You can often not spot this disease (often normal bodyweight).

Bulking
To make your muscles grow, hypertrophy, through exercise and targeted diet (calorie excess).

Bursa
A fluid-filled sac or sac-like cavity, which reduces friction in the body.

BW (or BWT)
Bodyweight. Expression is also used in relation to impact, force in number of times of body weight. Also an abbreviation in CrossFit.

C


C25K
Couch to 5K. From the couch, inactivity, to a km run. Running program for beginners.

Cable
Cable. Used in connection with cable training exercises, eg biceps cable curl.

Calisthenics
Strengthening exercises. Often with body weight on floor without tools or in racks.

Callanetics
Older form of floor exercises, muscular training, with small movements.
Inventor: Callan Pinckney, USA.

Capillaries
The smallest branches of the blood vessels.

Caput
Head, the thick end of the bone or body.

Cardio
Regarding the heart, circuits, eg circuit training.

Cardiophase
The condition section of an aerobics class or session.

Cardio Training
Cardiovascular exercise especially on machines (in gyms).

Caudal
Downward (towards the “tail” (cauda), buttocks), away from the head. Anatomy expression.

CD
Compact disc, music medium for training. CD.
Abbreviation for cooldown.

CEC
Continueing Education Credit, points for updating instructor certificates internationally.

Cervical
Relating to the neck part of the spine. 7 vertebrae, C1-C7.

CFT
CrossFit Total: Includes max squat, pressure and death lift.

CFWU
CrossFit Warm-up.

Chondromalacia
Degeneration of joint cartilage, typically on the back of the knee bone (patella).

Circuit
Circuits. Training in a ‘circuit’, i.e. exercises are trained in a continuous series (almost) without breaks. The training is often done in a circular format, but can be organized in several ways.

Circumduction
Circular motion.

C & J
Clean and jerk abbreviation, for example, used in CrossFit.

CKC 
Closed Kinetic Chain (Training): Closed chain. Exercise with the distal segment, distal end of the body part, fixed. Recommended method of knee rehabilitation (ACL injuries).

Clean
Weightlifting Exercise.

Climbing
Climbing like sports, sports and exercise. Climbing with harness and rope is secured. Climbing (or bouldering) Has become widely used in activity centers and certain major gyms.

CLN
Clean (short) abbreviation, for example, is used in CrossFit.

Closed-chain (Closed Kinetic Chain)
Closed chain. Exercise with the distal segment, distal end of the body part, fixed.

Clubbells
Clubs. Exercise tool, reminiscent of baseball clubs. Weight from 2.5-20 kg.
Suitable for especially swing exercises. One can train with low load and achieve high power development.

CNS
Central nervous system. Spinal cord and brain.

Co-activation
The antagonist in a movement is contracted simultaneously with the agonist.

COG
Center of gravity.

Columna
Spine.

Compartment
Muscle ‘room’ (surrounded by fascia). Anatomy expression.

Compliance
Adherence to a prescription or exercise program.

Compound exercise
Composite exercise. Exercise for multiple muscle groups.

Condyl
Protruding part of bone. Anatomy expression.

Contraction
To pull together. Muscle tension, muscle contraction. Expression from dance.

Continuous
Non-stop, continued work.

Contraindicated
Unacceptable; certain conditions can make an exercise unreasonable for certain participants.

Coordination
Collaboration between CNS, nerves and muscles.

Cortisol
Hormone that increases metabolism and body temperature, prepares body at work (fight). Also called a stress hormone; Important function for limited periods, while prolonged periods of increased cortisol levels weaken and break down the body.

Cortisone
Medicine, which inhibits inflammation.

Contralateral (English dictionary) ([kon “trah-lat’er-al)
Related to, originating from or acting on the opposite side of a reference point, eg on the body. Opposite: Ipsilateral.

Convention
Meeting, gathering, congress, eg fitness congress.

Cooldown
Cooling down after exercise, 5-10 minutes at low intensity.

Core training
From core. Exercises targeting the body centre; abs and back, outer and inner unit muscles with dynamic ab and back exercises and isometric exercises.

Count
Count, to count (eight-count).
For example countdown as pep talk in training.

Cranial
Upward, towards the head. Anatomy expression.

CrossFit
American training concept invented by Greg Glassman with short workout with high intensity strength training with basic exercises, body weight training, weightlifting and sprint training. No machine training. Focus on today’s workout, WOD.

Cross training
Mix of different types of training. Can be done indoors and outdoors.

CrP (CP)
Creatine phosphate, used in the energy process to form ATP.

CSA
Cross-Sectional Area. Muscle cross sectional area. Expressions are used in strength training programs.

Cueing
Instructions, visually, verbally or manually. Of English  cue , keywords.

Curl
Bending (of a joint). Used in exercise names, eg biceps curl and hamstring curl.

Cutting (to cut)
To make the muscles appear ‘cut’ by lowering the body’s fat percentage through exercise and diet (calorie deficit)..

D


Deadlift
One of three powerlifting discipline exercises. Weight bar and slices lifted from the floor with legs, hips and back.
Several variations with straight and bent legs.

DB (Dumbbell)
Abbreviation for dumbbell.

Decline
A position with the head down. E.g. on a sloping bench.

Degeneration
Age-related degeneration.

Deload
Relieve. To train at lower load.
Remove weight. Expression is used about removing plates after a set, so that you continue with a lower weight. Can be planned or not planned …

Delt 
Abbreviation for deltoids, shoulder muscles, m. Deltoideus.

Diastole
The period of time when the heart ventricles are relaxed (not contracting)

Dip (dips in majority)
Lower or dip. Used for exercises where the body is lowered. For example:
Triceps dips, for arms, shoulders and chest. Controversial: Hard for shoulders.
Leg dips, for the lower body, squat on one leg with the other free (off box).

Distal
Free end, away from the center of the body. Anatomy expression.

DL
Deadlift. Deadlift. The abbreviation is used in CrossFit training.

DOMS
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness, muscle fatigue 24-48 t after exercise.
Cannot be relieved by stretching, however general stiffness may be reduced.

Dorsal
Back of the foot or hand, to the back, backside of the body.

Double
Double, two or ‘two-repeater’. Two continuous repeats.

Dumbbell
Small rod with small removable plates or similar with fixed plates.
Metal or vinyl-clad (sometimes cloth, but this becomes very dirty).

Dynamic effort method (DE)
Explosive Strength Training. The term is used in weight lifting and steering lift on explosive strength.

Dynamometer
Instrument for measuring power development in motion.

Dyspnoea 
Difficulty in breathing.
Exercise intensity can be determined in part from the difficulty in breathing.

E


Ectomorf
Body Type, slender bone structure, slim muscles and low fat percentage.

Edema
Fluid build up e.g. in lower legs (often from sitting too long).

EDM
Electronic Dance music. Popular club dance music with mix, distinctive rhythm and synthesizer tracks.  Urban Dictionary: 128 BPM “big room” rage music from eg Tiësto, Hardwell a.o.

Effect
Result. In physics, power is defined as work / time. Measured in watts (W).

EEA
Essential Amino Acids, Essential Amino Acids; we cannot produce them ourselves.
To be supplied via diet or supplement.

Efferent
Efferent motor, nerve impulses, transmit output from CNS, central nervous system.

EIM | Exercise is Medicine
American, Global Health Initiative Started by ACSM; aims to encourage and assist doctors and other health professionals to include physical activity in connection with patient treatment plans. www.exerciseismedicine.org.

EMOM
Abbreviation for Every Minute On the Minute; An intensive, time-effective exercise variation: You start each set when a new minute begins and performs the set as quickly as possible with good form. Then you can spend the rest time – no more than that – for rest-pause. When the next minute starts, you start the next set.

Endomorf
Body Type – larger body frame, often with extra fat deposits.

Elevate
Lift, raise.

ECG
Electrocardiogram. Registration of the heart stroke.

EMG
Electromyography. Registration of impulses of muscle contraction.

Endomysium
Tissue/fascia around muscle fibers.

Energy requirements
The daily energy requirement depends on the body’s needs and is the amount of energy you need to consume for the body to function satisfactorily without deficiency symptoms and disease. The energy requirement is calculated from the baseline metabolism and physical activity level (PAL) level assessment; daily physical activity and exercise activity.
Adults typically have a daily energy requirement of 10-14 MJ, but there may be big variations. If you want to know more about the energy demand, it can be calculated from a formula and norms.

Enzyme
Complex protein molecule. Catalyst in the (body) chemical processes.

EPOC
Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption. After exercise energy (oxygen consumption) may still be high (eg 30-40% extra) after high-intensity or prolonged exhausting exercise.

Equilibrium
Balance. Caloric intake that balances intake with output.

Erector 
About extension, ref. to the back extensor muscles, erector spinae.

Ergometer
Apparatus for measuring muscle work (eg ergometer cycle).

Eversion
Turning outwards e.g. foot.

Eccentric
Muscle action, the muscle is elongated.

Exercise
To train, to work out, an exercise.

Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.
EPOC. After high-intensity exercise, the body continues to consume extra oxygen long after exercise.

Expiration
Exhalation. You breathe out through the nose (at rest) and / or the mouth.

Explosive
Speed ​​’as fast as possible’ during the exercise (especially contraction phase). Especially in compound exercises for big muscles.
Exercises the fast white, muscle fibers. For training after training.

Extension
Straightening of a joint.
Straightening, extending the whole body; a dance move.

ExRx
Exercise Recommendations, Abbreviation. Recommended exercises or recommended exercise dose. Name of Exercise Homepage exrx.net.

Extremities
Body parts, limbs.

EZ bar
Curved, short bar, especially for arm training.

F


Facilitate
Promote. Make something easier.

Failure
From ‘ failure ‘: You lift until failure; you cannot complete another repetition.

Fankick
A circular kick.
In martial arts and combat fitness training or dance.

Fascia
Connective tissue.

FFM 
Fat-free mass . Body mass excluding fat mass, body fat-free parts.
Fat-free mass can refer to any tissue that does not contain fat.

Fitness
Fit for survival. Expression from cell biology. Now often refers to international health and fitness and fitness training in gyms. The National Board of Health defines it as a collective expression of physical performance, ie. both aerobic, strength, speed, etc.

Fixator
Muscle that stabilizes bone during movement. Stabilizing muscle.

Flex
To contract a muscle to bend a joint.
Or the actual movement: Flex your wrist.

Flexion
Bending of a joint.

Floorwork
Floor exercises. Resistance training sitting and lying on the floor.

Freestyle
Free style. Not choreographed. Not planned in advance.

Frequency
Frequency, how often. Number of workouts per week. Beats per minute (BPM). Oscillations per second (Hz).

FROM
Functional Range of Motion. The functional, appropriate move.

Front
On, by, to the front. Typically about front squat with barbell resting on chest and shoulders.

Frontal plane (window plane)
Vertical movement plane – from shoulder to shoulder, movements aside.

FS
Front squat (short leg bend) shortening. For example, used in CrossFit.

FT
Fast twitch, fast contraction (white muscle fiber). FTa, fast, white. FTx, even faster, white.

Functional training
Training for everyday or sport-specific function.
Can be all sorts of exercises as long as they have function, including isolation.
The term often refers to free exercises and not machine exercises.

Functional
(Exercises) Related to everyday of sports function.

Physiological scale
Borg’s 10-scale for assessment of exercise intensity. The term is also used on various 10-scales for evaluation of exercise during exercise.

Physical activity
Any muscle work that increases energy turnover in the skeletal muscle, ie both unstructured activity and more conscious, targeted regular physical activity (National Board of Health, 2011).

G


GHR
Glute Ham Raise, Exercise for hamstrings and buttocks.

GHD
Glute Ham Developer Abbreviation. Develops hamstrings and buttocks.

GI
Glycemic Index. How fast your blood sugar rises after eating a particular food item. The number is based on a reference value of 100 (often glucose or white bread). Over 70 – high GI. 55-70 – medium GI. Under 55 – low GI.

Glucose
Sugar, found in nature and in the blood (blood sugar).

Glutes
Abbreviation for gluteal muscles. Especially about the buttocks, gluteus maximus.

Glycogen
Glucose is stored in the body’s tissues as glycogen.

GPP
General Physical Preparedness, abbreviation, actual physical fitness.

Grand plié
Deep broad squat / knee bend (like sumo squat).

Grapevine
Aerobics movement: From ‘vine’.

Gravity
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars.

GTG
Grease the groove: CrossFit method with many submaximal sets of an exercise.

GTO
Golgi Tendon Organ. Golgi, a sensory organ, which triggers the anti-myotatic reflex. Relaxation of the muscle.

H


Hams
Abbreviation for hamstrings (English), group of muscles on back of leg:
m. Biceps femoris, m. Semitendonosus, m. Semimembranosus.

Hamstrings
Behind leg, back of leg, group:
m. Biceps femoris, m. Semitendonosus, m. Semimembranosus.

Speed
Measured in meters / second. 1 km / h = 0.278 m / s.
Important parameter in training. Make exercises harder and more intensive.
An advantage for experienced exercisers, often a disadvantage for beginners.

H2H
Hand to hand. About kettlebell juggling technique or fighting method.

HI
High Impact, eg HIA, high impact aerobics. With an airborne phase, both feet above the floor, and an impact force during landing, which corresponds to around 2-3 times the weight of the body.

Heavy rope (training)
Long, heavy rope, you can move or swing in various directions and patterns. Strengthens muscles and heart. Also called battle rope.
Popular in so-called functional training.

Heavyrope
Special skipping ropes , rubber tubes filled with sand, for fitness skipping.

HF
Heart rate, heart frequenzy per minute. HFmax, maximal heart rate.

High impact
High vertical (vertical) reaction force; high impact on landing.
In normal running and hop there is an impact 2-3 times the weight of the body.
In gymnastics it is over 6-7 times the weight of the body.
In athletic jumps, it may be 10-13 times body weight.

High Responder
Person with high, good or fast response, to training.

HIIT
High-intensity Interval Training . Interval training at high and super high intensity. Many different methods. High-intensity training improves fitness as well as a wide range of health parameters. To be used according to fitness level, health and goal.

HIRT
High-intensity Resistance Training . High-intensity strength training, 6-8 repetitions, heavy load. HIRT is a general term that can cover different types of programs.

HIT
High Intensity Training. High-intensity training. Fitness training with high intensity, often as interval training. Also, an older strength training principle, 1 set a 10-12 repetitions per. exercise. Inventor: Arthur Jones. The founder of the Nautilus firm.

HLR
Short for Hanging Leg Raise , Hanging Leg Lift.

Homostasis
Equilibrium (constant environment).

Hop
High Impact hop on one leg.

Horizontal plane
Horizontal plane of motion, also transverse plane.

HR
Heart Rate. Pulse rate.

HRM
Heart rate monitor. With strap (around heart) measurement. Or by the wrist.

HSPU
Hand-stand push up.  Abbreviation used in CrossFit.

HSQ
Hang/high squat abbreviation. The exercise starts with the barbell ‘hanging’ around knee height.

Hybrid
Compound. For example, hybrid class, which combines two types of training, Spin’n’Pump.

Hyperextension
Extending beyond normal range. Either inadvertently (as in hypermobility) or consciously as in the training of the lower back, where you bend backwards.

Hypertrophy
Of Greek hyper, ‘bigger’ and trophe ‘nutrition’ or ‘growth’. Increase the size of a tissue or organ by increasing the size of the individual cells (in biological terms). Causes can be abundant nutrition, increased use eg strength training or hormone stimulation.
The term is used especially in connection with muscle growth. Obtained by exercise to fatigue and large volume. There are several methods, but generally the hypertrophy area is 8-12 repetitions.

Hyperplasia
Of Greek, ‘more’ and ‘development’, ‘formation’. About growth due to the increase in cell count in a tissue.

Hyperventilation
Breathing increases more than oxygen absorption.

Hypo
Less than normal.

Hypotrophy
Of Greek hypo- ‘under’ and trophe ‘nutrition’, ie ‘malnutrition’.
Underdevelopment of a body tissue, tissue reduction (atrophy).
In plant theory, hypotrophy means; A plant develops more strongly on the underside than on the upper side (Large Norwegian Lexicon).

Hemoglobin
Protein molecule (Hb), which transports the oxygen in the blood.

I


I Go You Go
Buddy training method: You complete 1 set, the your body takes over immediately, then you go again “Without putting the weights down” (if possible). E.g. for 1 minute each.

IADL
Instrumental activities within ADL (everyday activities); often household activities such as cooking, cleaning and purchasing.

IF
Intermittent fasting. Periodical fasoting. There are many methods, such as one day fasting and one day normal (healthy) eating. It helps to maintain muscle mass versus traditional long-lasting faste diets, which prevent muscle growth.

IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1
A protein that plays an important role in childhood growth and which has anabolic, anabolic effect also in adults. The hormone can regulate cell growth and development, especially nerve cells, eg in the brain and muscles.

IIFYM 
If It Fits Your Macros ; If it suits your macro (nutrients). The term and abbreviation refers to ensuring that the relevant macronutrient needs (recommended amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat) are met according to one’s needs and objectives with predominantly healthy food, but also according to personal preference; ie eating healthy but without being fanatic – contrary to ‘clean eating’, a diffuse expression of eating healthy and avoiding (all) unhealthy.
IIFYM is predominantly eating healthy, but misinterpreted in many articles, so the diet instead becomes mostly unhealthy. IIFYM article example .

Immune system
The body’s “defense” system.

Impact
Reaction, Impact, Effect. Used frequently for reaction forces in landings, such as low and high impact.

Impact factor (IF)
Impact of a scientific journal; The average number of times citing an article from a given journal, which indicates the relevance of the journal.

In situ
The body in anatomical normal position: nose, feet, palms forward.

Incline
Leaning upwards. On a slope or incline bench.
Lying on an incline bench or hanging from bar/rings/TRX with head upwards.

Infection
Illness caused by bacteria or viruses.

Inferior
Lower, Lower. Anatomy expression.

Inflammation
Inflammation state in body, caused by overload.
Inflammation is a good thing as an action in recovery, but too much inflammation is associated with many illnesses.

Incontinence
Problems with involuntary urination.
A widespread problem among both women and men. Can in many cases be remedied by Kegel exercises.

Insertion
Where muscle attacheds to the bone.

Inspiration
Inhalation. Man breathes in via nose and / or mouth.
Nose breathing at rest is healthier (heating / air filtration).

Intensity
Load on cardiovascular system or muscles.

Inter
Between. Anatomy expression. Or: Between participants or between workouts.

Intermediate
Medium level. Training or participant. English.

Interval
Period, intermittent training with working and rest periods.

Interval
Exercise in intervals, moderate, high or super high intensity. Many different methods.
Defined by training one capacity, typically cardio; a high intensity workg period followed by a recovery period (active rest-pause) repeated a number of times.

Interwalk
Danish program and app with walking interval training. From the Center for Active Health.

Intra
Inside. Anatomy expression. Or: In a single workout.

Ipsilateral (English adjective) ( ip’si-lat’ĕr-Al )
At the samside, with reference to a given point. Impacting the same side.
Opposite: Contralateral.

IU
Inner unit.  The deeper, stabilizing muscles.

Inversion
Turning inward, e.g. sole of the foot.

Ischemic
Lack of oxygen.

Isokinetic
Muscle contraction at constant speed with the same tension.

Isolation
Isolation exercise. Exercises for isolated muscle groups in strength training or dance.

Isometric
Static, muscular work without joint movement.

Isotonic
Dynamic muscle movement.
A more recent term is DCER,  dynamic constant external resistance , constant resistance resistance (Fleck, Kraemer, 2004).

J


Jack
Jumping jack. Jumping. Aerobics base step.
Feet jumps in and out.

Jam
Improvisation. Music, dance, aerobics free style.

Jogging 
Running. Run at an even, moderate pace, eg around 8-9 km/h.

Jump
Jump on both feet, landing on one or both feet, eg squat jump.

Joule
Unit of measurement for energy (energy for performing work).

K


KAATSU
Low intensity training with strap around top of limb; for blood (partial) occlusion.
See occlusion training. KAATSU is the original Japanese concept.

Calorie
Heat quantity for heating 1 gram of water 1 degree C.

Calorie surplus
Intake of more calories than output. Prerequisite for optimal muscle building.

Calorie deficit
Intake of less calories than outbut. Related to weight loss.

Kcal
Kilocalorie, 1 kcal is 1000 calories. In many texts, 1 calorie stands for 1 kcal. 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ.

kJ
Kilojoule, energy unit. 1 kcal equals 4,186 kJ. 1 kJ = 0.240 kcal.

Kilocalorie
1000 calories. Abbreviated kcal.

KB
Kettlebell. Ball-like training device with handle. The abbreviation is used in CrossFit.

Ketogen diet (Keto)
Diet with very low carbohydrates for weight loss, for example.

Kettlebell 
Ball-like training device with handle. Girya. Russian strength training tool. Can be used for all types of strength training exercises, but is especially suitable for swing exercises, as well as pull and shock. From 4-40 kg.

Kick
Movement. Often high, straight kick. Aerobics basic step.

Biscuit
An expression for a very small weight plate typically less than 1.25 kg.

Kinesiology
About the body’s movements.

Kinetics
Body movement as a function of certain forces.

Kinetic
Movement (movement energy).

 

kp
Kilopond. The force of gravity in the mass 1 kg:
1 kp = 1 kg x 9,81 m / s2. 1 Newton = 0.10 kp.

kpm
Physical work, mechanical energy, is indicated occasionally in kilopond / meter.
1 kp xm = 9.81 Joule. 1 Joule = 0.10 kpm.

Power moment
Load around a joint of motion.

Krampe
Maximum muscle contraction – beyond the power of the will.

Kroc Row
One-arm kneeling rowing with more repetitions than otherwise and less focus on technique:
Founded by Matt Kroc for the purpose of increasing muscle mass.

Body Composition
The body composition of fat-free body mass and fat.

KTE
Knees two elbows. CrossFit abbreviation. From hanging lift, raise knees to elbows.

KTP
The center of gravity of the body, where the mass is collected (at the American  COG, center of gravity ).

L


Lactate (about lactic acid)
Lactic acid.

Lateral
Movements away from the body. The term is often used on side laterals, an abbreviation for shoulder side elevation with dumbbells.

Lats
Abbreviation for latissimus dorsi (latin), the broad back muscle, the ‘wing muscular’.

LBM
Lean Body Mass, fat-free body mass.

LE
Lower extremities, legs.

Lead 
English. Leading. Start (legs). The leg starts the series of exercises, steps.

Leap
English. Hop from one foot to the other. A big running step. In gymnastics and dance.

Lever 
Distance from the load to the pivot point.

Ligament ligaments
Connects bone with bone.

LISS
Low Intensity Steady State. Cardio, circuit training at low moderate intensity.

LI
Low Impact, possibly. LIA, low impact aerobics. Without sweeping phase, at least one foot in the floor.

Longus
Lang. Anatomy expression.

Lounge
A music style, easy listening, laid back rhythmically jazz-inspired music, played in clubs and bars. Very useful for team strength training.
The word ‘lounge’ is sometimes used mistakenly about the strengthening lung (also English pronunciation).

Low back, lower back
Lumbar part of spine, back; five lumbar vertebrae, L1-L5.

Low impact
Low degree of impact, without running and hoping, at least one foot in the floor.
The term is often used in aerobic pulse training.

Low responder
Person with low, poor or slow response, on exercise, typical circuit training (maximum oxygen absorption test).

LTPA 
Leisure Time Physical Activity , physical activity in free time. Important health factor.
Other related abbreviations:
PA: Physical Activity, PADL: Physical Activity of Daily Living.

Lumbago
Lumbar pain, keep your back.

Lumbar
Regarding the lumbar part of the spine. 5 lumbar vertebrae, L1-L5.

Lung
Occurrence or outcome; originally sudden appearance. With English pronunciation.
Strength training step forward, bent legs. The body is moved in the movement.
Aerobic (pulse) basistrin lung; stretched backwards without moving the body.
Lung (s), Danish pronunciation, are the organs where breathing, rehearsing, takes place.

Luksation Ledskred
. Damage where the joints are completely displaced. May be caused by illness or injury.

LWF
Lift Weights Faster. Generally, expressing weight training with fast movements. Turned to concept and marketed by Jen Sinkler, USA.

Loop economy
The energy used per kg body weight to run one kilometer. With good running economy, less energy is used to carry out the same work (National Board of Health, 2011).

M


m
Mass. The mass of a body, weight, is measured in kilograms (kg).

Maximum
Largest. Can be greatest frequency, greatest oxygen absorption, greatest effort.

Maximum
pulse The highest pulse you can achieve: Maximum heart rate, HFmax.
It is available for testing. Alternatively, there are several formulas, including 220-age and 208-70% age, for calculating maximum pulse, but with great uncertainty.

Masterclass
Inspiration class with guest instructor. Widely used in team training.

Max effort method
Strong training. The term is used in weightlifting about the heaviest exercise (opposite submaximal and repeated effort).

Maximus
Big or Biggest. Anatomy expression.

MBL team
training name, stomach-ball-thigh training.

Medial
Against Body.

Medius
Mellemste.

Mentor
Teacher.

Mesomorphic body type
, muscular building.

With
Metabolic Equivalent or Task. Or Metabolic Equivalents. Metabolic equivalent.
Describes oxygen absorption, energy conversion. 1 MET corresponds to energy conversion by maintaining body functions, metabolism, complete rest, also called basal turnover, at which time the body consumes 3.5 ml of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute, 1 MET.
During exercise, alcohol consumption rises 3-5 times, 5 MET, of basal turnover, and runs 8-12 times, 8-12 MET.
The MET values ​​appear in the display of many cardiovascular machines.

Metabolism The
metabolism. The chemical processes and reactions in the body; energy metabolism.
The metabolism consists of: basal metabolic rate (BMR), food induced thermogenesis (FIT) and physical activity, physical activity level (PAL).

MetCon (METCON)
Metabolic Conditioning Workout, CrossFit Abbreviation for Exercise Exercise; puts the combustion in the weather for example with a view to fat loss. It may be circling or series of exercises in rounds without pause, time training or ‘as many repetitions as possible’, AMRAP, as many repetitions (rounds) as possible .

Metronome
Mechanical rhythm meter used to specify the tempo of a piece of music. It can also be used to maintain a consistent pace in an exercise. You can also get a metronome app.

MFR
Myo-fascial release (massage technique). Solving tight muscles and connective tissue with pressure, especially for example rolling with and on foam rolls, massage balls or tennis balls.

MFT (MFE, Master of Fitness and Exercise)
Master of Fitness and Exercise. University degree, 2-year self-financed, at SDU.
(MFT is also IT abbreviation for Master File Table , map of all data on hard disk).

Mindfulness
Attention. Method of training concentration. Also provides relaxation and relaxation.

Minimus
Minor.

Mitochondrial
Body in the muscle cell that utilizes the oxygen for the production of ATP.

MI
Moderate Impact, possibly. MIA, moderate impact aerobic. Medium reaction force.

Mixed
Mixed. For example, mixed impact aerobics. Or mixed grip (combination grip) for simultaneous over and lower grip on lever.

MJ
Megajoule. The daily energy needs are described in megajoule. 1 MJ = 1000 kJ.
For adults, energy demand is in the range of 10-14 MJ depending on activity level.

MMA
Mixed martial arts. A full-contact martial arts form that allows for use of both stroke and grip, upright and on floor, using techniques from a number of martial arts disciplines.

Mobility
English for movement. Used for (hold) training of agility and articulation with both static and dynamic stretch along with stability (possibly strength).

Modulation
Changing a nerve signal.

Motion
Exercise is used both in connection with unstructured activity and more conscious, targeted, regular exercise (Health Board, 2011).

Motivation
Internal and external forces that promote the intention of a particular behavior.
Inner motivation: By light. Outer motivation: Of (some) duty / compulsion.

Motor cortex
Part of the brain that has overall control of movements / motorics.

Motoric
Coordination.

Motor neuron Motor neuron
. Nerve cell that sends signals to the muscle (efferent).

Move
Movement to move. Expressions are used in dance. Of English.

MP
Military press, abbreviation. Shoulder prints with barbell in front of body / face.

MP3
music file format. It is a compression format for audio files. It removes tiny shades that the human ear can not hear; The MP3 file does not sound exactly like the original, but very close. An MP3 file can be up to 10 times less than the original file.

MU
Motor unit, motor unit, nerve cell and associated muscle fibers.
CrossFit: Muscle up abbreviation. Hanging from rod or ring, a combined pull-up and dip (press up) are carried out so that you end in vertical armrest.

Muscle 
Contractile tissue for producing joint movement. Consist of muscle fibers, connective tissue (plus tendons). Muscle belly; thick part of the muscle.

Muscle fiber
Muscle cells. Muscle parts (composed of microscopic protein tissues). There are several types of muscle fibers, common division:
Red, slow, enduring fibers, ST. Intermediate fibers, FTa. Fast, white, fiber, FTx

Muscle spindle
Sensory organ, which detects length and tension changes in muscle.
Related to the myotatic reflex, which makes the muscle contract.

Myalgia
Muscle pain.

Myoglobin
Protein molecule, which transports the oxygen into the muscle.

Myosin
Protein string in the muscular contractile element.

N


N
Newton. Kg xm / s2 The force that gives the mass 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m / s2.

NEAT 
Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis , non-training-related activity thermogenesis (combustion). Small activities that increase combustion; restlessly moving the feet, drumming with fingers, getting up or sitting down, to walk or stroll around.
NEAT activities are important for weight maintenance and health and help weight loss.

NEPA 
Non-exercise physical activity . Physical activity, not training.
Daily activities like standing, walking, household work, gardening etc.

Nerve
Impulse-conductive tissue. Abbreviated n. Pluralis, nerves, nn.

Neurally drive
Amount of nerve impulses to a muscle.

Neuron
Nerve cell.

NI
Non-impact, without reaction force; stationary exercises like balances and floor exercises.

NIA
Neuro Integrative Action. Bodymind training, mindful special dance.
Found by Debbie and Carlos Rosas, USA.

Non Responder
Person with low, poor or slow response ton exercise. An inaccurate expression because there will be some degree of response in one or more areas; Another, better expression is low responder.

Nordic Walking
Walking with poles in the hands. Increases the training effect.

Nudging
Behavior Design. It’s about pointing people towards better habits (diet, exercise, smoking, traffic, hygiene). Nudging seeks to influence people’s behavior without depriving them of their own free will.
Example: Make it easy to find the stairs in a building. Washbasins on the hallways in hospitals.

O


OAC
Abbreviation for One-Arm Chin-ups. With undergrip.

OAP
Abbreviation for One-Arm Pull-ups (or One-Arm Push-ups ). With wide overgrip.

OBLA
Onset or blood lactate accumulation. Threshold where lactic acid production rises markedly.

OHP 
Overhead Press . Shoulder prints with pole in front of the body with feet in broad standing (or possibly sitting). (One version is military press with feet total).

OHS
Overhead Squat, Abbreviation. Deep squat made with lever in stretched, locked, arms over (or rear) head. The arms are held in the same position through the exercise.

OKC 
Open Kinetic Chain . Open chain. Exercise with the distal segment, remove part of the body part, free (not fixed). For example: Leg extension, leg park, in machine.

Olympic Games
Olympic Games (OG, Olympic Games). Every fourth year, global sports competitions are held in selected sports. Weightlifting is an OL discipline

Inclusion
Training Low-stress training with clamping of limbs with straps or the like to reduce blood (venous) reversal. It creates an environment in the muscle that promotes muscle strength and muscle growth.
The method is particularly suitable for injuries, but may be risky for certain target groups. those with blood disorders. Other names for the training include Blood Flow Restricted Training, Tourniquet Training and Kaatsu , which is the original concept with special equipment.

Open-chain (Open Kinetic Chain)
Open chain. Exercise with the distal segment, remove part of the body part, free (not fixed).
For example: Leg extension, leg park, in machine.

Os
Knogle.

Osmosis
Fluid and gas migration through porous walls and obstacles.

Otter
Team Training designation of 1 x 8 beat stroke, a phrase, verse line. Equivalent to 2 4/4.

OU
Outer unit, the outer muscles.

Overload
damage Damage that occurs over time, eg many repeated lifting with error.

Overcompensation
Or Supercompensation. Body responds to exercise by getting stronger.

Overload
Overload, extra load, to create physical progress.

P


PA 
Physical Activity , Physical Activity. Other related abbreviations:
PADL: Physical Activity of Daily Living. LTPA: Leisure Time Physical Activity.

Pace
Tempo, intensity. Come on, push participants.

Pad (Pads in plural)
Cushion (of English). Can refer to the cushions, the puffs, on machines. Can also refer to a collar to change the lever (eg to motion squat) or small cushions to the hands to improve grip during different exercises such as pull-ups and death lifts.

PADL 
Physical Activity of Daily Living , physical activity in everyday life (everyday life).
Other related abbreviations:
PA: Physical Activity, LTPA: Leisure Time Physical Activity

PAL
Physical Activity Level . A person’s daily activity level expressed as a number that can be used to calculate a person’s total daily energy consumption.
When the basal metabolism is calculated, it is multiplied by the number of general activity along with possible training.

Paleo Diet (Paleolithic Diet)
Stone Age Cost. A diet of fish and lean meat, vegetables, fruit, nuts and seeds and no dairy products, almost no grain, no salt or sugar.
The Paleo Diet idea can be traced back to 1975 (in a book by Walter Voegtlin), further developed by Stanley Boyd Eaton and Melvin Konner and popularized by Loren Cordain in his book The Paleo Diet of 2002. The
Paleo diet has many followers but also many critics .

Palmar
against the palm of the hand. Anatomy expression.

PAP 
Post-Activation Potentiation . Heating, heating set and 1 rope. (1 x 1) with maximum load. So break 7 (8-12) minutes. Next, normal sets and ropes.
The heavy lift gears the nervous system to lift more (multiple repetitions).
The method can be used by well-trained to move on, out of a training platform.

Partial
Partial.

Pattern
Pattern. Movement pattern or shape. English.

PC
Power clean, abbreviation. Used in CrossFit.
Personal computer.

Peak aerobics
Most intensive part of an aerobics, pulse training, lesson.

Peak contraction Muscular
tension (extra) in top position.

Pec deck
Strength training machine (deck) for the training of the chest muscles (pectoralis).

Pecs
Abbreviation used for pectoralis major (latin), the large breast muscle.

Penetration angle Muscular
fiber angle relative to direction of drawing .

PEP Program
Prevent injury and Enhance Performance. A program for the development of strength and neuromuscular control of the knee (Santa Monica, CA, 1999). With warming, stretch, strength, plyometry and sport-specific agility. 19 items. 20 minutes duration.

Periodization
Variation, pulsation, in training plan.

Pertubationstræning
By per- and draining of the LAT. treacherous to ‘disturb the disorder’; less disturbing effect in a physical equilibrium system (The Great Danish).
[Man] works on uneven surfaces and exposed to unexpected external power. [Man] must react quickly and functionally with compensatory motion.
(Danish Sports Medicine, No. 2, May, 2002).
The method is used in neuromuscular training in order to perform knee stability, for example, to prevent cross-strain injuries.

Pilates
Special muscle training with or without tools. By: Joseph Pilates.
Pilates floor exercises without tools are called  food exercise .

Piloxing
Team Training . Mix of fitness boxing, pilates and ballet exercises. Inventor: Viveca Jensen, USA.

Plans
The body’s movements move into three overall anatomical plans; sagittal plane (forward-backward), frontal plane (lateral) and transverse plane (horizontal plane).

Pitch
Tone height. Pitch control. Button for adjusting music speed (team training).

Plantar
against the foot sole. Anatomy expression.

Plateau
A standstill or evening in the training effect, progress.

Plié
Benbøjning in broad standing.

Plyometry
Of Greek plio, longer, and metric, goals. Plyometry (training) refers to prolongation of the muscle, the eccentric phase, which is utilized to increase the power of the subsequent concentric phase. Natalia Verkhoshansky, “Plyometrics are the exercises in which the pliometric (eccentric) regime is used to increase the power output of movement” .

Plyometric Training Spring Force Training
, Explosive Strength Training Focusing on Speed.
Trained for example with 30-45% of 1RM loads.

PNF
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation. Muscular activation and stretching technique.

Point
Dance Express. Stretch foot, point foot, is the plantation of foot.

Post-aerobics
Rounding, the last minutes, subsequent aerobic fitness training.

Posterior
At the back of the body.

Postural
regarding posture, upright position (of English posture).

Power
Kraft and speed at the same time.

Powerlifter
Strength lifts. Person who grows power lift, powerlifting.

Powerlifting
An international sport with squat, bench press and deadlift. In Danish:
Strength lift. It’s about lifting as much as possible once.

Powerwalking
Intense walking training with high speed and powerful arm movements. Training time.

PP 
Push press, abbreviation. Shoulder prints with dumbbells, accelerated by bones.

PR 
Personal record . Personal record, best result.
Public relations, advertising.

Press
Pres. Press Movement. Push.

Profund
In Depth. Anatomy expression.

Prophylactic
Prevention (prophylaxis, prevention).

Progressive
Gradually rising (progression).

Propulsion
Movement with floating phase, the term used in step theory. English.

PROM
Passive Range Of Motion, Passive Movement. With external help.

Progression Progress
or Method. Search.
Progressive. With progress. Pushy.

Pronation
Insertion – against the hand or foot.

Pronounced
Commonly (in English), or inline.
Or: Faced with the ‘gastric side’. Hands or feet angled.

Protein
Macronutrient, which is made up of amino acids.
Has among other things for function to build and repair the body’s tissues.

Proximally
to the root, towards the center of the body.

PSN
Power Snatch. CrossFit abbreviation.

PU
Pull-up, Body Shock, or Push-up, Armstrong.
Unfortunately, the same abbreviation for two opposing exercises.

PU
Push-up. English. Arms Contractions. Abbreviations are used in CrossFit.

Pull (pulling)
To pull. Pull movements  are pulling moves, you pull something or yourself;
eg robberies or pull-ups. Opposite moves are push movements .

Pull-up
Crooked. With narrow or medium grip (chin-up with wide assault).

Pulse reserve
The maximum pulse minus the rest pulse. Ie the ‘pulse area’ available, eg for physical exercise.

Pulse
watch Wrist watch and sensor located at heart for pulse measurement.

Pump Pump
movements with muscles. Name for concept of muscle strength training.
Pump : Bodybuilder expresses the feeling or sight of an acute trained muscle that has swelled up due to increased blood flow.

Push (pushing)
To push. Push movements are pressure movements, pushing or pushing something, for example chest prank or shoulder pressure. Opposite moves are pull movements .

Push Press
Multi-Muscle Exercise: A combination of squat with explosive stretching of legs and at the same time shoulder pressure. Exercises the lower body, body and upper body simultaneously.

Push-up
Armrest (of English). Push up with your arms. Strong basic exercise for triceps, chest and shoulders. Countless variations.

Pyramid (training)
Strength training method, increasing weight and decreasing repetitions or vice versa or both (double pyramid). Example: 12-10-8-6-8-10-12.

Q


Q
Minimize (cardiac output) = SV x HF. The amount of blood that flows through the heart in a minute.

QoL 
Quality of life . Quality of life. The abbreviation is seen, for example, in trial reports; QoL is one of the goals of interventions, trials and treatment courses, for the elderly and the sick.

Q-sign
Instructional sign , arm, hand, fingers, in team training. By cue, keywords.

Qi Gong (Qigong)
Several thousand years old Chinese health system, which includes positions, exercises, breathing exercises and mental training. Qigong comes from Qi, vitality or life energy, and Gong of skill gained through regular practice. For health, body and mind.

Quad (quads in majority)
Abbreviation for quadriceps (latin), leaving, thigh muscles.

Quantified self
Quantification of one self; measurement and data collection, so you can spell one’s body and health. Measurement via wearables such as smarture and for example computing with an app or a pc program.

Q-angle
Angle between lines through the straight head of the quadriceps and the knee neck.

R


RDL
Romanian Deadlift. Romanian death lift. A variation of dead leg with stiff legs, stiff-legged deadlift , where the hip is pushed backwards and backwards in the return phase.

Rack 
Stand (English). Used for all types of racks eg squat rack or multi rack. The term is also used to put the weights or lever back into the stand: To rack the barbell.

Reaction exercises
Proper reaction exercises take place with unexpected sounds (whistle signals or commands) or light signals to respond quickly.
General reaction exercises are exercises where you quickly get down and up from the floor, possibly with the turn of the body from the back to the back or vice versa.

Relaxin
Pregnancy Hormone , which softens connective tissue.

Relative Strength
Strength in relation to body weight, strength compared to others.

Relax
Relax, loosen up. English. Used most frequently in wellness.

Relaxin
Pregnancy Hormone , which softens connective tissue.

RENEW
Abbreviation for Resistance exercise through negative, eccentrically induced Work, s bull training through negative, eccentric work.
Can improve strength, mobility and balance.

Rep
Abbreviation for repetition, repeat. A complete repeat of an exercise.

Repeated effort method
Strength training method . The term is used in weightlifting and steering lift on submaksimal training for failure (opposite repeated effort).

Repeater
Repeat step in team training, especially stout training. Repeat the lift, eg double knee lift or triple heel pull.

Repetition
Repetition. A simple complete performance of the exercise. 1RM equals 100% load.

Resistance training
English / American expression of resistance resistance is widely used in strength training in the broadest sense; body weight training, elastics, weights etc.

Refund
Rest, which ensures rebuild after training.

RFD
Rate of Force Development. Power change per unit of time. How fast a muscle or muscle group can develop (maximum) force. Strength increase (0-500 ms).
Used for example to express explosive strength.

RM
Repetition maximum. The maximum muscle can lift X number of times. For example, 1RM or 5RM.
Used as intensity indication: 10 repetitions at 12 RM (so you could have lifted the weight two extra times). Via formula or calculator you can calculate 1RM from eg 10RM.

ROM
Range Of Motion, Movement. Full range of motion is recommended (in case of injury, taking into account pain).

Rotation
Rotate about an axis (medial, lateral, right, left).

RPE
Rating of Perceived Exertion. Assessment of effort using Borg scale.

RPM
Revolutions per Minute. Revolutions per minute. in cycling and cycling.

RT
Reaction time. Response. The time it takes to prepare and start a movement.
The time interval between a signal (stimulus) that indicates the required movement and start of the movement (Magill R, Andersen D. Motor Learning and Control).

Ruptur
Failure.

Rx’d
As recommended, prescribed. CrossFit expression: Performed as recommended, ie. eg a WOD, training pass, without any variations.

Back bends
Popular extraction for ‘back stretches’, the usual exercise, stretching (lifts) the back. What gives muscle training is the stretch, therefore back stretch is a more correct expression in terms of training.

Back stretches
Exercise for back stretching, also called lumbar spine, erector spinae.
Mave or hip starting position. From the bent position, the spine is stretched to a neutral or slightly hyperextended position.

S


Saginal plane (wheel plane)
Vertical motion plane – from back to front, forward / backward movements.

SAID
Specific Adaptions to Imposed Demand. Specific adaptation to the required requirements.
You get good at what you train so the training must be tailored to the goal.

SAQ
Abbreviation for Speed, Agility, Quickness. Can be translated to speed, agility and reaction ability. A newer popular term for agility programs with varying content.

Sarkopenia
Of sarx (meat) and penia (loss). Loss of muscle mass during normal aging. Defined as a skeletal muscle mass at least two standard deviations below the average muscle mass of a younger reference group of men and women aged 18-40 years (National Board of Health, 2011).

SD
Sumo deadlift, abbreviation. Death lift in a broad position.

SDHP
Sumo deadlift high pull. CrossFit abbreviation.

Self-efficacy
Individuals relate to their own abilities in relation to a particular behavior. An important term defined by Albert Bandura. Also called in Danish, ‘mastering expectation’.

Senetene
Sanseceller who detects severe tension in the tendon.

Sensory neuron
Nerve cell that transmits input to the central nervous system.

Set
Set (of English). A series of repetitions, repetitions) eg 4 sets of 8 repetitions.
Two sets , to place or set something. Example: Two sets a timer.

SI-joint
Sacro-Iliaca joint. The SI joint is important for normal function in the back.
If there are problems with the ligaments in the SI joint, it causes pain around the pelvis.

Single
Single. For example, single-set training. A simple repetition of an exercise.

Sit-up
Supine abdominal exercise with hip flexion.

Skip
Movement, typically a low bent-to-straight skip. Basic step in aerobics.

SLDL
Abbreviation for Stiff Legged Deadlift. Dead lift with stretched legs.

Slide
Glide. Lateral movement. Slide training, training.

Smith machine
Strength training rack with a fixed lever that moves in a vertical track up and down.
Can provide safety and security during solo training.

SN
Snatch, abbreviation, CrossFit.

Snatch
Weightlifting discipline exercise. The barbell is pulled over the head in one movement and held there shortly, while beinding the legs.

SPA
Sanum Per Aquam. Health through water. The spa term is widely used for spa centers with various baths and treatments and about bubble baths found in high-end gyms.

Spinning
Of Spin, To Roll. Ride a bike. The original concept of indoor team cycling.
Found by Jonathan Goldberg, Johnny G., USA.
Since spinning is a registered trademark, many fitness centers use the general term team cycling, cycling or biking.

SPM
stroke per minute. Number of heartbeats per minute, also HF, heart rate.

SPP
Specific Physical Preparedness, Specific Physical Readiness, Opposite General Physical Fitness. For example, technical training or sports-specific training.

SQ
Squat (leg bend), abbreviation.

Squat
Legbend. Standing bending and stretching of legs; knee and hip.
A ‘conquest’; one of the three compulsory strength training disciplines and the perhaps most popular (and relevant) fitness strength training exercise.

SSC
Stretch-shortening cycle. An active muscle extension, stretch, eccentric action, immediately followed by a muscle shortening, concentric contraction, in the same muscle. Pretension. Make the movement more powerful, among other things. because of the storage of elastic energy to the concentric phase.

ST
Slow twitch, slow contraction (red muscle fiber). Type 1 fiber.

Starjump
Sprllemandshop up in the air, eg airjack.

State-of-the-art
The Newest, Best (American, Now-Danish Expression).

Step
Step, exercise, exercise tool.

Step touch
Step to side and steady. Widespread aerobic pulse training course.

Sticking point
The ‘dead’, difficult point. The hardest point in the exercise.

Strap (straps in the plural)
a strap or belt, strap or bomuldsrem, which is used to wrap on the rods in the racks or levers to lift the weight to – usually provide finger muscles before the arm and back muscles. An alternative is to acknowledge that the body is only as strong as the weakest joint and gradually build the gripping force with self-exercise and grip training.

Stretching
Exhale techniques that aim to increase the mobility or decrease the passive muscle resistance (Peter Magnusson). Translated to:
Extension, Extension Program (including Bob Anderson).

Stretch
an increase in tension in the tissue (Finn Boysen-Møller).
The term is often used for stretching, stretching exercises, to counteract tight muscles or increase mobility.

Stretch Reflex
Myotatisk reflex. Reflex that causes the muscle to contract.
The reflexes are triggered from the muscles that sense changes in the muscle.

Sub (subbed)
Abbreviation for substitute, replace (or substitute). For example, replace an exercise with another. Sub also means ‘below (a given level)’.

Submaximal effort method
Strength training method . The term is used in weightlifting and steering lift on submacimal training with excess, not for failure (opposite repeated effort).

Substrate
Fabric.

SUP
Stand-up paddle or stand up paddleboarding. Paddle on large surf-like board. Has become a popular form of sports, sports and exercise. Some personal trainers use SUP training as all-round exercise, core and balance training.

Superficially
At the surface. Anatomy expression.

Superior
Over, Upper.

Supercompensation
Or Overcompensation. Body responds to exercise by getting stronger.

Superset
Of Superse T, American. You switch between two different exercises. For example, agonist antagonist superset (for opposing muscle groups) or compound superset (two different exercises for the same muscle group).

Supine Remaining
(English).

Supineret Faced
with the backside. Outside of the hand or foot back.

SV
Stroke volume, blood volume per heartbeat.

Synergist
Assistant Muscle.

Systole
The period of time when the heart ventricles are contracting.

Set
A number of repetitions performed sequentially without pause.
A ‘series’. For three sets or series, it can be written either:
3 x 10 (sets are typically mentioned first in fitness) or 10 x 3 (typically in weightlifting).

T


TA
Transversus Abdominis. The transverse abdominal muscle.

Tai Chi
Chinese folk gymnastics with very slow movements. Can also be performed quickly as martial arts training. Inventor: Cheng Wang Ting.

Tap
Shock, change. Touch. Lightly bend your toe to the floor to change your legs.

Loss
of English, losing , diminishing. Scheduled (and controlled) reduction of training amount.

Tap-free
Step training team training expression and method; Exercise that eliminates leg shifts (lead shift) with tap steps (especially floor down), which can be hard to see.

TBC
Total Body Conditioning. Among other things. Concept of Circle Training launched by Nike in the 90’s.

Team
teaches Teaching by two or more teachers.

Tendo
Sene, connects muscle with bone.

Testosterone
Male sex hormone. Affects muscle building positively.

TGU
Turkish Get-up. Exercise where with kettlebell or weight in one arm rises from the floor and up to standing position. Available in several variations.

Tinnitus
Constant ring for the ears. May be overly loud. Can be relieved slightly, but not healed.

Thorakal
Regarding the breast part of the spine. 12 (breast) vertebrae, T1-T12.

Tonnage
Total weight. Total weight in kilos or tons. Also called volume.
Example (squat): 100 kg x 5 rows. x 5 sets = 2500 kg = 2.5 tons.
Can refer to total weight in exercise or in training session (sum of tonnage in all exercises).

Touch
Touch. Touch. Suppression steps as loss. English.

Transverse
plane (floor plan ) Horizontal motion plan – arms / legs cross in horizontal plane and rotations.

Trap (traps and trapz)
Abbreviation for trapezius (Latin), the neck muscles, is also called the hood or cape muscle (also covering a large part of the back).

Exercise
Scheduled and structured physical activity that is performed regularly to maintain or improve physical form and well-being.

Exercise
band Flat, wide, long stretch of elastic for exercise and rehabilitation.
Available, approx. 2½-3m, or in rolls, so you can cut pieces yourself.
Enables exercises and special exercises with great moves.
Correctly vulnerable material, runs relatively easily into pieces.

TTB
Toes to bar. CrossFit expression: Hanging from rod or ring. Bend only around the hip and raise your toes and touch the rod or call. Lower with control.

Tube
Same as tubular training elastic “band”.
Lightweight, useful and durable.

Tuberculum
Prosthesis. Anatomy expression.

Tuberose
Bone protrusion. Anatomy expression.

Tuck jump
High jump where the knees are pulled up against the stomach.

Turn
To change direction.

TUT
Time Under Tension. Time under load, typically the duration of a set (strength training).
Longer time under tension is one factor, which promotes hypertrophy.

U


Exposure
Or  side lung , one foots outwards and pushes back again.
Outbreaks can also be used if the onset of lung occurs before you step forward.

Utilization
The amount of oxygen from the artery blood absorbed by the cells.

Extension
An increase in tension in the tissue (Finn Bojsen-Møller).
The withdrawal is often used in connection with stretch exercises.

UE
Upper extremities, arms.

Unilateral
Only one side, one arm and / or leg, works – opposite bilateral.

V


Valsava maneuver Exercise
Expiration with vocal cords closed. May cause fainting.

Vein
Blood vessels, which transports venous blood back to the heart.

Ventral
Towards the front (belly) of the body.

Ventricle
Heart chamber.

ViPR
Training Tool . Medium, short rubber tube with holes for hands. In several weight classes. Acronym for: Vitality. Performance. Reconditioning.

Virus
Microorganism.

VMO
Vastus Medialis Oblique. Part of the vastus medialis (quadriceps) muscle, the thigh muscle.
The muscle is located just above and at the inside of the knee skull. The VMO fibers are more oblique than the other fibers in the vastus medialis.
The muscle is very important in order to stabilize the knee skull.

Volume
Quantity, amount of training. Can refer to tonnage total kilo lift and / or amount of sets and repetitions total in a training session or in the week’s training.

VO2max
Maximum oxygen absorption capacity, maximum volume oxygen (O2).

V-step
Popular step pattern in step (up) training. One walks up and down in broad-standing and down and collects feet again.

W


WALKit
Threadmill without a motor. One keeps walking fast.

Warm-up
Prior to exercise, raising the heart rate and body temperature gradually for 5-20 minutes. General and specific activity, which prepares the body for activity.

Watt
Watt, W, is a physical unit of measurement for effect.
1 watts is the power that is provided when a work (or energy conversion) is performed every 1 second, ie 1 W = 1 J / s.

Wearables (wearable technology)
Tech equipment that measures the body’s health and performance. Smart watches, fit trackers, goggles a.o. that can measure heart rate, watt, step, distance, calorie burn, sleep, and more. Worn on the body.

Well-being
Feeling well. Being well.

Wellness
Wellness comes from ‘well’, English, which has several meanings, for example, to be quick and to be well. It can be translated into well-being.
Wellness includes physical, mental, emotional, spiritual and social well-being.
The wellness word is now used for spa activities, swimming, massage and various body and beauty treatments.

Wendler’s 5/3/1
Strength Lifting Program that significantly increases the strength. Designed by Jim Wendler. 3 training days per week. Basic exercises squat, bench press, deadlift, shoulder pressure. See structure and system on muscle and strength.

Wireless
Wireless (microphone). Used in group exercise.

WO (W / O)
Workout, abbreviation. Exercise.

WOD 
Workout Of The Day. The program for today’s training. Expression from CrossFit.

Work out
To exercise.

Workout 
An exercise session.

Workshop
Course with practical and theoretical educational content.

X


XerTube
Elastic tube from the company SPRI. Training Tubefor resistance training

X-Training
American abbreviation for crosstraining, combining multiple types of training.

Y


YBF
CrossFit Expression: You’ll Be Fine. About: It’s going to be fine.

Yoga
Thousand year old Indian training. The main goal is increased attention and focus, a higher spiritual state. Respiratory control,  pranayama , and physical exercises,  asanas , are only part of yoga. There are many different yoga forms.

Z


ZumbaFitness
Training Form with fitness dance on hold, mainly using Latin music. Discovered by Alberto “Beto” Perez, Colombia.

 

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